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While many bird species are widespread, over 2,500 are endemic and restricted to an area smaller than 5 million hectares (restricted-range species). BirdLife International has mapped every restricted-range species using geo-referenced locality records. Through this process, they identified regions of the world—known as “[Endemic Bird Areas](http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/eba)” (EBAs)—where the distributions of two or more of these species overlap. Half of all restricted-range species are globally threatened or near-threatened, and the other half remain vulnerable to loss or degradation of habitat. The majority of EBAs are also important for the conservation of restricted-range species from other animal and plant groups. The unique landscapes where these bird species occur, amounting to just 4.5% of the earth's land surface, are high priorities for broad-scale ecosystem conservation. Geographically, EBAs are often islands or mountain ranges, and vary considerably in size, from a few hundred hectares to more than 10,000,000 hectares. EBAs also vary in the number of restricted-range species that they support (from two to 80). EBAs are found around the world, but most (77%) of them are located in the tropics and subtropics.

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